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LIBRARY
Resources related to traditional construction in earthquake areas
Click on images to enlarge images, and RIGHT-CLICK on blue text to download and save documents onto your computer.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


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MAPS: Detailed Map of India and Satellite map of Srinagar

I. DOCUMENTS FOR DOWNLOADING FREE FROM THIS WEBSITE

1. TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION MANUALS
2. BUILDING CODES & GUIDELINES
3. KASHMIR & the rest of INDIA
4. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS
5. TIMBER & FOREST AGRICULTURE

II. LINKS TO RELATED INFORMATION ON OTHER WEBSITES

A. Conservation Technology Resources
B. Traditional Building Technology and Earthquake Engineering
C. Kashmir: Environment and Planning Resources


"Nature's Confined Masonry," Kathmandu Valley, NEPAL, 2000. 
(c) Randolph Langenbach, 2000
(Click on photo to enlarge)

MAPS
India and Pakistan
detailed map
(2.7MB pdf)
(1.5MB jpg)

SRINAGAR

GOOGLE EARTH
Images of Srinagar pasted together to form a plan of the city with each house visible.

CLICK HERE
to view quick-download enlargeable view


sample of image detail

To download PDF's of the composite image, Right-click on the choice below

1) City+all of Dal Lake.
     (10MG pdf)

2) City+Houseboat area
     (5MB pdf)

3) City+Rainawari Canal
     (2MG pdf)
     (900kb jpg)

4) City Centre
     (500KB pdf)
     (300kb jpg)
 

 

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I. DOCUMENTS FOR DOWNLOADING FREE FROM THIS WEBSITE

Click on TITLE to download document, click on COVER to enlarge cover


EDITORIALS

Lives; New (and Improved?) Delhi
As India is transformed by technology and globalization, appreciation for traditional building practices is being lost – and sometimes found again.


by Delhi Architect Gautan Bhatia, a May 21, 2006 Editorial on the loss of a culture of traditional building in the New York Times


 

Building an Ugly India

by Delhi Architect Gautam Bhatia, 2001

 1. TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION MANUALS


Dhajji Dewari Construction

Basic Training on Dhajji Construction(8.4MB), by Tom Schacher, Architect, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and Maggie Stephenson, UN-HABITAT, December 2006, for use in the trainings of the masons and buildings in Kashmir and the Northwest Frontier Province in Pakistan. This version is a PowerPoint show converted to a PDF.
Tom Schacher at Pakistan training centre,Oct. 2006

DHAJJI Construction: A Guidebook for Technicians and Artisans, (4MB), by Tom Schacher, Architect, SDC and Qaisar Ali, Professor of Engineering, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, May, 2010. Published by Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Switzerland. This version is a 40-page PDF Book suitable for printing. It is published under a license that allows it to be freely copied and distributed with attribution.


Arch.Tom Schacher

Dr. Qaisar Ali



Bhatar timber-laced Construction

Bhatar [similar to taq timber-laced] Construction, An Illustrated Guide for Craftsmen, by Tom Schacher, Architect, SDC, May 2007. This lesson was produced in cooperation with the French and Belgian Red Cross, for use in the trainings of the masons and builders in the Northwest Frontier Province in Pakistan.  This draft copy was reviewed, modified and published in final form by the Pakistan Government (ERRA). For the Govt Approved FINAL VERSION, CLICK HERE. (The Draft contains guidelines for 2nd floors and for retaining walls that were eliminated in final version.  Some details and descriptions were more refined in final version, but this website believes that it is worthwhile having both versions available for comparison.)
SDC Training Centre in Mansehra, Pakistan

Build Back Better - Bhatar, Background and Rationale, by Dominic Dowling, PhD, Earthquake Engineer – UN-Habitat, Pakistan; Pierre-Yves Pere, Architect, Reconstruction IC Coordinator – French Red Cross, Pakistan; Pierre Perrault, Engineer, Construction Delegate, Belgian Red Cross, Pakistan. Published by UN-HABITAT et.al. 2007.

This 14 page paper is a structural engineering analysis and review of Bhatar banded construction for stone masonry buildings in Pakistan after the 2005 earthquake.



"Leepa" solid-wall timber construction

Leepa: Guidelines for the compliant construction of Leepa-type timber post and beam houses, by UN-HABITAT for ERRA (Pakistan Government). Co-authors:S.Habib Mughal, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, Asim Khilji, Maggie Stephenson.

This form of construction is named after the Leepa Valley in Pakistan.  Similar construction is found on the India side of Kashmir.


 2. BUILDING CODES & GUIDELINES

1986/re. 2004: Guidelines for Earthquake-Resistant Non-Engineered Construction.  Produced and revised by an international team of experts including Prof. Anand Arya.

Link to NICEE Website for English Version

Download entire document in English as a single file. (10MBpdf)

Link to NICEE Website for Hindi Version

1993 Indian National Building Code for Earthen Buildings. (download 7.5 MB

 

1993 Indian National Code for Low-Strength Masonry Buildings.  (download 5.5 MB)

 

NEPAL Building Codes in English (Link to External Website)

 

Guidelines for Earthquake-Resistant... Masonry Buildings in Jammu & Kashmir State, by Anand Arya.

USA: UCBC, Appendix, Chapter 1.  

This code was written for existing buildings, and the Appendix Chapter 1 is based on an NSF funded elaborate scientific project on the behavior of unreinforced masonry buildings and cost-effective ways to mitigate earthquake hazards.  The published scientific study was called the ABK Methodology, and this code made its provisions legal in the State of California.  It is still in force today (in a more recent version than published here.)

USA: Explanatory Commentary on UCBC, Appendix, Chapter 1.

Technical Documents from the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

(The United States Government's Agency for Domestic Disaster Response and Recovery)

FEMA 310: Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Buildings

Although oriented to building types common in North America, this document provides a useful detailed set of checklists for a series of increasingly detailed evaluations different building types for seismic resistance, including unreinforced masonry buildings.

FEMA 356: A PreStandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings

Although oriented to building types common in North America, this document provides detailed engineering design criteria for code-level upgrading of existing buildings.  Building types include reinforced concrete, steel frame, unreinforced masonry, light steel frame, and wood frame.  It also includes information on base isolation and other technologies.


3. KASHMIR & the rest of INDIA

1982, "India in Conflict: Urban Renewal Moves East," by Randolph Langenbach, Historic Preservation, National Trust For Historic Preservation,Washington, DC, USA 34:3, May-June 1982, pp46-51 (web page)

1989, "Bricks, Mortar, and Earthquakes, Historic Preservation vs. Earthquake Safety," by Randolph Langenbach, APT Bulletin, The Journal of Preservation Technology, The Association for Preservation Technology International, XXI, 3&4, Sept. 1989. (1.1MB pdf)

INTACH Post-Earthquake Jammu & Kashmir Damage Assessment


Lives; New (and Improved?) Delhi
As India is transformed by technology and globalization, appreciation for traditional building practices is being lost – and sometimes found again.

2006, "Lives; New (and Improved?) Delhi"
New York Times Guest Editorial by New Delhi Architect Gautam Bhatia on the importance to India of traditional building practices. New York Times May 21, 2006.

 


4. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF
TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS

Demonstration of effectiveness of seismic bands in unreinforced masonry (36 MB MPG file)

A video of a public demonstration in Bagh, Kashmir, Pakistan by the National Society for Earthquake Technology in Nepal

FROM "OPUS CRATICIUM" TO THE "CHICAGO FRAME: Earthquake Resistant Traditional Construction, by Randolph Langenbach, Proceedings (forthcoming), Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, (P.B.Lorenço, P.Roca, C.Modena, S.Agrawal, Editors) New Delhi, 2006.
   

Analysis of the Pombolino Walls, by Silvino Pompeu Santos, Research Director of the Portuguese Government engineering labs in Lisbon. (Document is in Portuguese) (1.1 MB PowerPoint File)

This paper documents the results of the lateral load testing of actual 18th century Pombalino "Gaiola" masonry and timber infill-frame walls.

CONFINING MASONRY USING PRE-CAST RC ELEMENT FOR ENHANCED EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE
Samaresh Paikara and Durgesh C. Rai, IIT-Kanpur

This is a paper given at the 2006 8NCEE Conference in San Francisco on the anniversary of the '06 Earthquake and Fire.  It is developed out of the Thesis by Samaresh Paikara, which was a structural engineering study of 1 brick thick (10 cm) masonry panels confined with precast RC beams sized the same as the timber in dhajji dewari.



5. TIMBER & FOREST AGRICULTURE

State of the World's Forests 2007

This examines progress towards sustainable forest management. Part I reviews progress region by region. Part II presents selected issues in the forest sector, probing the state of knowledge or recent activities in 18 topics of interest to forestry. Climate change, forest landscape restoration, forest tenure, invasive species, wildlife management and wood energy are just a sampling of the subjects covered. State of the World’s Forests 2007 will be a useful reference for policy-makers, foresters, academics and all readers concerned with the major issues affecting the forest sector today.
 

Best practices for improving law compliance in the forest sector
FAO Forestry Paper 145

Illegal logging and associated trade have far-reaching environmental, social and economic consequences. Various stakeholders at the local, national and international levels are making efforts to address the issue. This publication provides an overview of these experiences to foster better forest law compliance. It analyses available knowledge in a set of best practices drawn from 11 country case studies, which decision-makers may wish to apply to reduce illegal operations in the forest sector.
 

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005; Progress towards sustainable forest management
FAO Forestry Paper 147

This publication, the main report of FRA 2005, contains country-by-country data, contributed by national correspondents and reviewed and collated by FAO, for more key forest variables than in any previous assessment. Based on these results, the report analyses progress being made towards sustainable forest management. Recommendations for future assessments are also included. This report is an essential reference for anyone interested in the status of the world's forests, for those involved in international negotiations related to forestry and for all concerned with the contribution of forests to sustainable development.

   
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II. LINKS TO RELATED INFORMATION ON OTHER WEBSITES


 A. Conservation Technology


City University of London, UK

Bibliography on Traditional Construction in Earthquake Areas
with Links to other teaching information on the subject

US National Park Service Technical Preservation Services

Preservation Briefs
A remarkable set of 44 concise but thorough reports on many different aspects of Preservation Design, Technology and Craftsmanship.

For Example:  The one on MASONRY MORTAR and REPOINTING is Preservation Brief #2: Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Masonry Buildings, by Robert C. Mack, FAIA, and John P. Speweik
 

FORESTRY United Nations Food and Agriculture website on FORESTRY and FOREST AGRICULTURE

B. Traditional Building Technology and Earthquake Engineering


www.conservationtech.com

Website with the work by RANDOLPH LANGENBACH, author of the UNESCO Book DON'T TEAR IT DOWN! PRESERVING THE EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF KASHMIR


UNITED STATES

Selected FEMA technical documents - Earthquake Engineering Related
Introduction to Structures and Earthquake Engineering (Produced by Randolph Langenbach and Robert Hanson for FEMA from FEMA 356.)


C. Kashmir Environment and Planning

Salman Rushdie
(photo by Timothy Greenfield-Sanders, NPR)

 

'Shalimar the Clown' Takes Rushdie Back to Kashmir by

CLICK HERE and select interview at top of page for interview about KASHMIR, and the one below the photo for an interview about Rushdie's Kashmiri grandmother.)

 

"Kashmir, Paradise on Earth," the
J&K Tourism Website

MAP of Kashmir with links to information

   
ESRO International Environmental Network, Kashmir Chapter

Capacity building project promoting Kashmir's ecological security

ESRO-Web publications on Srinagar environmental degradation
These are from a website that has disappeared.

DeWeeding of Dal Lake

Dal Lake Weed Nuisance

Dal Lake Resettlement Project

Anchar Lake is Dying

Jhelum River Threatened

Disappearing Wetlands

Kashmir Groups and Govt. Organizations
 

   
   

 

 

EDITOR'S PAGE      

 

Website produced, designed, and maintained by

© Randolph Langenbach
M-Arch (Harvard), Dipl.Conservation (York, England)

www.conservationtech.com

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